Nascent transcript sequencing visualizes transcription at nucleotide resolution. An oncogenic super-enhancer formed through somatic mutation of a noncoding intergenic element. Alternatively, it is possible that several PTMs contribute to enhancer function through parallel mechanisms such that the loss of one PTM may be obscured by the presence of others. Direct identification of hundreds of expression-modulating variants using a multiplexed reporter assay. Enhancer regulation of transcriptional bursting parameters revealed by forced chromatin looping. Recently it was shown that ITCH knock-out mice also showed age-dependent alterations in spermatogenesis

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B, quantitative analysis of the phenotype shown in A. We discuss that the two latter approaches provide different and complementary insights, especially in assessing enhancer sufficiency and necessity for transcription activation. However, it remains to be tested whether short unstable eRNAs with highly diverse sequences could drive phase transition and whether this could contribute to enhancer activity.

Bryneau enigmatic protein governing cell fate and cell polarity.

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Regions required for the expression of certain genes are not necessarily enhancers, as perturbations might influence transcription by other means; e. However, this leads to random integrations likely biased toward accessible DNA near active enhancer or promoter regions Bushman ; Myers et al.

Brubeau sequence features that influence AP-1 cis -regulatory activity.


Such promoter- and enhancer-specific requirements of different cofactors are consistent with the differential requirements for subunits of the large cofactor complex Mediator Allen and Taatjeswhich has been assessed recently by rapid subunit depletion Anandhakumar et al. Ectopic assays explore this property to test DNA sequences separated from their endogenous sequence and chromatin environments.

Wnt5a protein was from Millipore. Whole-genome chromatin profiling from limited numbers of cells using nano-ChIP-seq. If eRNAs mediated the formation of specialized membraneless compartments at active enhancers or promoters via phase transition Muerdter and Stark ; Hnisz et al. Using such assays, international consortia such as Encode and individual groups have compiled large compendia of enhancers and annotated genomic regions e.

After 48 h, cells were harvested for immunoblotting. Curr Opin Genet Dev Massively parallel quantification of the regulatory effects of noncoding genetic variation in a human cohort. Ectopic enhancer activity assays and genetic perturbations of endogenous enhancers are complementary, and the outcomes need to be interpreted with care.

Histone variants on the move: Chromatin kinases act on transcription factors and histone tails in regulation of inducible transcription. PLoS Comput Biol 5: Diversity and complexity in DNA recognition by transcription factors.

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Large-scale genetic d reveal regulatory networks and an abundance of gene-specific repressors. Massively parallel reporter assays MPRAs uniquely associate candidate enhancers with barcodes—short unique DNA sequences that are used instead of reporter genes Kwasnieski et al.


In search of the determinants of enhancer-promoter interaction specificity. Case report and review. Wnt signaling is initiated by binding of extracellular Wnt ligands to Frizzled transmembrane receptors, leading to membrane recruitment and activation of Dishevelled Dvl.

Enhancers and super-enhancers have an equivalent regulatory role in embryonic stem cells through regulation of single or multiple genes. Assessing sufficiency and necessity of enhancer activities for gene expression and the mechanisms of transcription activation Rui R.

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Chromatin extrusion explains key features of loop and domain formation in wild-type and engineered genomes. The many paths to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase bruenau in the immune system. Mot1, Ino80C, and NC2 function coordinately to regulate pervasive transcription in yeast and mammals.

Genomic traits used to predict enhancers can also be found in other genomic regions, making enhancer predictions imperfect.

A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic, random monoallelic gene expression in mammalian cells. A method for genetically installing site-specific acetylation in recombinant histones defines the effects of H3 K56 acetylation.